Many thanks Mr Ben Green for this lovely review

“Since a very young age I have tried to avoid the dentist due to a previous poor experience, how ever since coming to Surbiton Smile centre I have found my confidence and belief in dentists again. The team are fantastic!! throughout my experience the team made me feel so comfortable and always made sure I was happy at all times. Simin, Theo, Claudia, Wendy, Fernanda were all great. I am very grateful to you. Thank you. I would highly recommend to anyone who doesn’t like the dentist to visit Surbiton Smile Centre, I guarantee you will find your confidence again and want to visit more often as I now do. I cannot thank the team enough. Thank you.”

Delighted with Ms Vanda Green review of our services

“I’ve had my braces taken off today and I am absolutely over the moon with the results! The whole experience, from start to finish, has been extremely professional. I felt that I could always rely on the great expertise of Dr Theo and his team and I am really happy with the results. I have been recommending Surbiton Smile Centre to everyone. A sentence must be said for the great value of the orthodontist treatment as well as the generous repayment plan I was able to take advantage of. Thank you so so so much.”

Have you heard of revolutionary Damon Braces for straightening your teeth? Surbiton dentist explains

Surbiton Damon brace orthodontic practitioner explains: Damon braces are revolutionary method in treating misalignment of the teeth. Traditional orthodontic treatments require removal of healthy teeth to make space, which is uncomfortable, takes longer, and can leave a narrower arch and a flat profile. Surbiton Damon brace smiles are full, natural 10-tooth smiles achieved with light biologically-sensible forces, and are specifically designed to improve the overall facial result of each patient.

Certified Damon System dentist Dr Theo Swanepoel combine three key components, which when used together, deliver faster treatment, fewer appointments, greater comfort, and consistent high-quality results:

  1. Damon passive self-ligating braces that eliminate the need for elastic or metal “ties”. With Damon tie-less braces you can experience treatment without tightening.
  2. Light high-technology shape-memory wires that move teeth faster and require fewer adjustments.
  3. A new clinically proven treatment approach that aligns your teeth and enhances your facial aesthetics—usually without extractions or rapid palatal expanders.

Book a FREE consultation with Dr Theo Swanepoel, and find our if you can benefit from Damon Braces.

 

 

Surrey dentist treat painful TMJ / TMD, jaw join problems

The temporomandibular joint, the joint on each side of your head in front of your ears and connects the lower jaw to the the skull, also known as TMJ. The temporomandibular joint is supported by muscles that make it possible to open and close the mouth. The pain, discomfort or tenderness in or around these joints are referred to as TMJ disorders. Symptoms of TMJ disorders include headache, ear pain, fullness of ear, dizziness, neck pain and headaches, bite problems (malocclusion), clicking sounds, or locked jaws.

Behaviours or conditions such as teeth grinding, previous fracture and trauma to the jaw, and stress can lead to TMJ disorders:

Treatments for TMJ range from self-help advice practices and conservative treatments to and surgery. Surgery is recommended in those situations in which medical therapy has not responded. Surgery is to be considered as the last resort.

But if you suspect you have TMJ, you should be certain before you start treating it. Keep in mind that a wide variety of possible conditions can cause TMJ symptoms, Experts who are specially trained in facial pain can help diagnose and treat TMJ. Here at Surrey dentist have extensive experience of treating patients with TMJ. Book an appointment with our dentist and find out how we can help you to manage and cure TMJ pain effectively.

Thanks Dear Patient for your Kind Review of Surbiton Smile Centre

“I have been receiving treatment at Surbiton Smile Centre for a year now and I have been very impressed by the service. On a number of occasions I have had to change my appointment at the very last minute and Claudia on reception has always been very accommodating and fitted me in at a time that suits me. The team as a whole are very professional, welcoming and friendly, and my Dentist Theo has always put me at ease and taken time to answer any questions I may have. My Damon clear braces have now been removed and I couldn’t be happier with the results.Monthly interest free payments for my treatment have been arranged at a price that I can afford. I would highly recommend Surbiton Smile Centre to anybody seeking to improve their smile, you will not be disappointed, I can assure you of that!”

Matt Adams

Link Between Periodontal Disease & Lung Disorders

Periodontal disease is chronic inflammation that affects the gum and supporting tissues around the teeth. Research has associated gum disease with other health problems such as diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Research has now shown that bacteria that is accumulated in the mouth in patients with periodontal disease is considered a significant risk factor in causing respiratory infections and worsening existing lung conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and emphysema.

Respiratory infections are thought to be acquired from particles that contains bacteria and travels from the mouth and throat to the lungs.

The tested samples from mouth plaque have shown hugely toxic spices which gives way to the theory that these bacteria can easily move to the lung and cause serious damages.

Researchers are investigation the relationship between oral bacteria and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) which cause obstruction of airways. Patients with COPD have very week immature system which makes it difficult to diminish the bacteria from the respiratory system. 

Though the link between the periodontal disease and lung disorders does not have conclusive evidence but the association is strong enough and to believe and encourage anyone with lung and respiratory disorders to have a through oral examination with dentist to examine the existence of gum disease and to ensure steps taken to cure it.

It is easy to appreciate that with healthy gum the risk of developing respiratory disease is much less then when one has gum disease.

We stress the importance of regular dental check ups to prevent development of gum disease. In your routing dental examination the dental practitioner can assess your gum health, and advice accordingly. Basic practice is daily thorough tooth brushing and flossing between the teeth.

If you need advice from our dentist regarding periodontal treatment issues or simply want to ask a question please do not hesitate to contact us.

Dental Cavities / Tooth Decay Explained by Kingston Dentist

Teeth cavities are caused by tooth decay. Tooth decay can affect the outer tooth surface (enamel), he middle section (dentine) and the centre of the tooth, the pulp.  The more layers are involved the more sever the damage is.

Natural bacteria that lives inside the mouth forms the plague that interacts with debris from food and starchy and sugary food and turn them to acid. The acid dissolve the enamel over time and cause cavities. If the cavities are not addressed early on they develop and involve more layers of the tooth which can lead to sever tooth decay, infection and tooth loss in long.

Other contributing factors to tooth decay:

-Frequent snacking and sipping sugary drinks
-Not maintaining daily oral hygiene, brushing and flossing
-Not seeing dentist regular
-Not having enough fluoride, which makes the tooth resistant towards the acid produced by plaques

-Not having enough saliva in your mouth. Saliva cleans away the food and sugar. A dry -mouth can a result of taking medicine or breathing through the mouth.

Who is at risk of having dental cavities?

Any one can get dental cavities at any age. Older adults tend to have dental cavities around the edge of their fillings, and senior people develop cavities due to lack of fluoride in their when they were kids.

Prevention and Cure

Dentist can find cavities during routine dental check ups with the use of x-rays and manual testing methods.

If diagnosed with tooth decays dentist can remove them and fill the cavity with filling material and nowadays tend to be white fillings such as composite resin or porcelain that match the colour of the tooth.

If the tooth is badly damages so that not much of the tooth remains dental crowns are used instead of fillings. Crowns are made of  porcelain, porcelain fused to metal and gold.

If the root, the most inner part of the tooth is damaged the root canal treatment is needed. That means that the nerve of the tooth will be removed, blood vessels and tissue as well as the decayed part of the tooth. She or he will fill in the root with some materials. The tooth that is root candled need a crown.

If you have not had dental check-ups recently or suspect you might have dental decays contact our helpful team at Surbiton Smile Centre and ask for a check up appointment with Dr Soltani. We strongly believe in prevention rather than cure.

Oral Cancer Screening Explained by Surrey Dentist

Oral Cancer screening means testing people for early sign of oral cancer. Oral cancer is rare in the UK and once detected treated patients have 90% survival rate.

The sign and symptoms:

Oral cancer can be invisible in its early stages, and once it develops might not even cause pain and discomfort. Therefore its crucial for everyone to have an oral caner screening once a year. The common symptoms of oral cancer are:

-A lump in the mouth and throat
-An ulcer that does not go away within three weekswhite sports
-Difficulty in swallowing
-Numbness of the young and other area in the mouth
-Swelling in the jaw that does not let the denture to fit in well
-The neck swelling that last more than three weeks
-Soar throat or voice changes that last more that six weeks
-Persistent earache that the reason can not be diagnosed

Who is at Risk?

Mouth cancer has been linked to age. Almost half of all mouth cancers in The UK was diagnosed in people aged 65 and above and more than a quarter of all caners was in under 55s. Men are twice as likely to develop mouth cancer then women.

Smoking is to be known as leading contributor to oral cancer. Smoking turn the saliva to deadly cocktail that turns the mouth cells to cancerous cells. Using smokeless tobacco can increase the oral cancer risk.

heavy drinking can increase the risk of mouth cancer by four times. Alcohol helps the absorption of tobacco, people who smoke and drink excessively are 30 times more at risk of developing the oral cancer.

Diet short of sufficient fruit and vegetable has been found to increase the risk of ordeal cancer.

 

What to do?

There are couple of simple things you can do to find early signs of oral cancer:

-Check inside your mouth with a small mirror for any changes in the tissue, such as soreness or white spots. You need to let your dentist know about any changes you have noticed in your mouth or that particularly if you smoke and excessively drink

-have regular dental check ups, even if you have false teeth.Dentist do check for sign of oral cancer during the check ups. Therefore they are the first who can spot the cancer on the patient. If signs of cancer detected they can refer the patient to hospital to be seen by a specialist.

We at Surbiton Smile Centre are committed to prevention and do a thorugh mouth cancer screening at each check up appointments. Contact our team if you would like to have a check up or purely concerned about something that you have found in your mouth and would like to have it investigated further by a dentist.

 

 

 

Anxious or Nervous about Seeing a Dentist ? Surrey Dentist Explains

Dental anxiety is being nervous and anxious about visiting a dentist. Dental anxiety is quite common and have different stages and can effect people from all ages. It can become a barrier to have the dental treatment you need.

Dental anxiety can have different levels from mild nervousness to severe phobia. People who suffer from dental phobia might have fear of dentist needle, drill or having someone getting so close to them. They might have unpleasant childhood memories at the dentist.

Despite the reason people can overcome the fears through different methods and techniques.

 

Asking for help

The first thing to do it to contact a dentist and talk to him/her about your dental anxiety. At the time of booking explain to the team that you are an anxious patient so they can prepare and provide the support you need at the time you attend the appointment.

If you are not registered with a dentist or wish to find a dentist that is proven to have a track record of dealing with anxious patients ask recommendations from colleagues, friends or family; word of mouth is the best way as others might have had the same problems as you.

The first appointment with a dentist for an anxious patient tends to be more about meeting the dentist, talking about the anxiety and getting a feel of what type of support you can get. Some dentist might see you in a different room then the normal sugary room. A supporting dentist and the trust you develop in the dentist can reduce your anxiety.

The supports dentist can provided includes allowing you to have control over the timing of the sessions, control the amount of the treatment, allowing you to express your anxiety and talk about it. They are a number of options that help you relax and the dentist can explain them to you including the sedations.

If your dental phobia is severed and you can not even consider visiting a dentist you might ask help from your GP, they can recommend you to Cognitive behavioural Therapy.

 

 

Sedation

The sedation helps you to relax and remove anxiety. If you opt for oral or intravenous sedation make sure you have an adult accompanying you. Sedation temporarily affects your co-ordination and reasoning skills, therefore avoid drinking, driving and operating any from of machinery, or even signing any important legal document for the next 24 hours after treatment. The three main types of sedations used in dentistry:

Oral sedation

Your dentist can prescribe you medicine such as Diazpam that can be taken one or two hours before the appointment or alternatively the night before.

Inhalation sedation

This is also called relative analgesia, laughing gas, or gas and air. This is a combination of nitrogen oxide (N2O) and oxygen (O2) that will be breathed through a mask that has been placed over you nose.

It has pain relief effect as well as majorly relaxing your body. It gives you happy sensation and slight light-headedness, while being conscious of what is going around and in control of your movements. It takes about 5 minutes to take effect and once the treatment finished and the gas is stopped it leaves your body within a few minutes. There are no after-effects like drowsiness.

Intravenous sedation

In this method of sedation small amount of drug is injected to a vein in the back of your hand. This makes you relax and takes away your anxieties. Although you are able to communicate with the dentist you will not remember anything the treatment afterwards.  

General anesthesia

General anesthesia is the last option, where no other method of anxiety management is applicable. It can be used in cases of severe dental phobia, young children, people with disabilities, and people with potentially life-threatening infections. This procedure will be carried out in hospital or special clinics. You will be put in total sleep and will not remember anything afterwards. You should arrange with a friend or a family member to take you back home from hospital. General anaesthesia will affect your coordination and reasoning skills.

 

 

Alternative Methods- Physiological Techniques

Distraction

Consider distracting yourself from your dental treatment by listening to music through headphones, watching a DVD and exercising relaxation techniques.

Hypnosis

Its using the power of suggestions put to you by your hypnotherapist to help you change your mental approach to situations. You will be awake and in total control despite common perception people have about hypnosis. Although hypnosis may help you relax, there is little scientific evidence that it can help with anxiety. Hypnotherapy can only be performed on patients by an experienced professional or behavioural therapist.

Cognitive Behavioural Theraphy (GBT)

Cognitive behavioural therapy can not remove the problem, but it’s a type of therapy that helps you to address the negative thoughts and ideas and approach them in a positive way. A behavioural therapist can show you ways of reducing your anxiety and fears of seeing a dentist.

 

 

 

 

Diabetes and Gum Disease

Most people are aware that diabetes harm their eyes, nervous system, kidney and heart, but they are less aware that it can also cause problem in their mouth. People with diabetes are at risk of gum disease, and infection that harms the gum and the bone that holds the tooth in place. Gum disease (periodontal disease ) at its server stage cause problem with chewing and eventually cause tooth loss.

Blood vessels thickening is a complication of diabetes which is known to increase gum disease risk. The blood vessels deliver nutritions to body tissues and remove waste products. Diabetes thicken the blood cells, and disturb the blood flow and removal of wastes. This can weaken the resistance of gum and bone tissue to infection.

Many bacterias live on sugar and when diabetes is not controlled the high level of sugar in mouth fluids help the accumulation and growth of the germs which can again lead to gum disease.

Research has shown that smoking increase the risk of diabetes; smokers are five times more likely to develop gum disease than non-smokers. The risk becomes greater when smokers have diabetes. A smoker person with diabetes, aged 45 and above 20 times more likely to develop gum disease than a person without these risk factors.

The key in preventing gum problems within diabetics is to control the blood sugar. Regular dental checkups, daily brushing and flossing, and controlled blood sugar prevents diabetic complications.

To avoid developing complications of diabetes see your dentist as soon as you can and plan a regular maintenance program. If you need the opinion of our dentists contact us on 020 8339 933 or email us at smile@surbitonsmile.co.uk

A great review from a happy patient – Thanks for trusting us

“I first started at Smile Centre on the 2nd December 2013, an had a free orthodontic consultation with Theo Swanepoel. I was from day 1 very pleased with the service they gave me, they were very clear and explained the different brace opticians I could go for, once I decided on the Damon braces I quickly booked my next appointment to get them fitted. 10 months later and I already had my braces off. It was a quick, easy and pleasant experience. I straight away booked myself in for there teeth whitening and after day 2 of using the products they gave me, I saw great changes in whitening my teeth. As an acting student I always looked at famous celebrities and wished I could have there teeth but with the Smile Centre it was a quick and pleasant result and now I am happy and proud to show my teeth off. Great results, Great staff, Highly recommend booking for a consultation with Theo.”

Dentist Open Day at Surbiton Smile Centre

Dentist Open Day at Surbiton Smile Centre

Every Mondays till 15th Dec

This is a great opportunity for you and your family to come and meet our dental team and discuss any concern you have about your teeth, such as missing teeth, poor fitting denture, gum problems, loose teeth, headaches, jaw problems, crooked and discoloured teeth.

Due to popularity of this event to avoid disappointment book a place in advance.

 

Surbiton Smile Centre proud to receive such a great review from a patient

We received this kind review this morning and thank dear Lynn for trusting and believing in us with her dental health care.

” I have been receiving excellent dental care from Dr Simin Soltani at the Surbiton Smile Centre for many years now. Every procedure from fillings, crowns, whitening to an implant has been fully discussed from start to finish, such that I have every faith that the best possible treatment plan for me personally has been done. Simin is also always up to date with new procedures and equipment, which for me is incredibly important. Wendy my hygienist is really thorough and I feel totally confident that I am being given the right advice for maintaining the best oral hygiene possible. However, professional excellence is not the only reason that I keep going and will continue to do so. It is the whole dental experience that sets it aside from others. Every member of staff goes the extra mile to make you feel welcomed and cared for.

Mrs Lynn Hammond

Patient Review of Surbiton Smile Centre – We are delighted to receive such a kind feedback

Very pleased with the orthodontic treatment by Theo Swanepoel and Simin Soltani’s team. I chose Surbiton Smile as they seemed to cover all the treatments I wanted, now and in the future. I was especially bothered by my top teeth pointing in several different directions (the Warthog look!), affecting my smile and indeed confidence! At over 70, I didn’t think it was possible to rectify, but Theo (using the Damon system) has effected a transformation to straight normal looking teeth. Now happy to socialise and laugh! So, all you ladies (and men) in the bus-pass generation – braces are not only for teenagers. So big thank you to Theo and Simin’s team at Surbiton Smile.

Janet

Surbiton

Orthodontic in Kingston Upon Thames answers the frequently asked question about Lingual braces?

 

WIN LINGUAL BRACE Kingston London
WIN LINGUAL BRACE

What is the age limit to have lingual braces?Adults can have lingual braces at any ages. The beauty of lingual braces if that you can carry on with social and professional life without being conscious of the braces if they are an issue for you. lingual braces are extremely effective to provide the cosmetic look you are after or addressing the orthodontic problem of poor bite or teeth crowding.

Can children have lingual braces?There is no age limit for lingual braces. However we recommend the children to reach adolescence before considering it. To be qualified for lingual braces as it’s a matter of tooth length rather then age. There is a minimum length of tooth required for attaching the brackets at the back of the teeth. The minimum length is not available in children, start to appear at adolescence and no problem once they are adults.

How long does it take?The length of the treatment with lingual braces varies among patients based on personalized treatment plan. The length of the treatment can be from 9-24 month.This length of time is as much as the conventional braces would take.

Will I have difficulty eating and speaking?here are certain foods you need to avoid. For instance, taffies, chewing gums, popcorn, nuts,  crusty bread, boiled sweets, popcorn, or anything your need to bite on hard.You might experience slight change in your speech for a short while. As soon as you have adapted to your braces the feeling disappear. The new brackets in WIN LINGUAL are much smaller and greatly reduced the problem.

Is 6 Month Smile an alternative to lingual bracesThe 6 month smile is designed for patients who have mild misalignment on the front teeth. To achieve a long term results we recommend patients to choose an orthodontic option that correct and align all the teeth at the same time, rather than focusing on a few teeth which can cause other problem later on. The consultations are free for orthodontic treatment, come and discuss your options with us.

Is Inman aligner is an alternative to lingual braces? Inman aligner is a fast treatment for misalignment on the front. If you are experiencing a major misalignment and need to correct poor bites, Inman aligner is not an option. The consultations are free for orthodontic treatment, come and discuss your options with us.

What is the procedure of the treatment with lingual braces?Once you decided to have lingual braces we arrange an appointment for record keeping which involves taking impression of your teeth, pictures and x-rays.

The impression taken will be sent to Germany to have customized brackets made for you.  In the following appointment the brackets are glued to the back of the teeth and the arch wires that provide the tension will be fixed to the brackets.

What happened once the braces are fitted?You would need to have appointments every 6-8 weeks to adjust the wires for the ultimate and effective results.

How do I take care of my teeth and braces?It is very important that you spend more time then normal to do through clearing. We highly recommend seeing hygienist regularly during the treatment as you will find it difficult to reach all the area.

If you have any further question do not hesitate to contact us and book yourself a FREE consultation with Dr Swanepoel.

 

 

 

 

Gum disease bacteria and their damage to immune system, study finds

Source: Image and text courtesy of University of Pennsylvania

Date:June 11, 2014

 

Bacteria responsible for many cases of periodontitis cause an imbalance in the microbial community in the gums, with a sophisticated, two-prong manipulation of the human immune system, research shows. Not only does the team’s discovery open up new targets for periodontitis treatment, it also suggests a bacterial strategy that could be at play in other diseases involving dysbiosis.

 

he human body is comprised of roughly 10 times more bacterial cells than human cells. In healthy people, these bacteria are typically harmless and often helpful, keeping disease-causing microbes at bay. But, when disturbances knock these bacterial populations out of balance, illnesses can arise. Periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease, is one example.

In a new study, University of Pennsylvania researchers show that bacteria responsible for many cases of periodontitis cause this imbalance, known as dysbiosis, with a sophisticated, two-prong manipulation of the human immune system.

Their findings, reported in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, lay out the mechanism, revealing that the periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis acts on two molecular pathways to simultaneously block immune cells’ killing ability while preserving the cells’ ability to cause inflammation. The selective strategy protects “bystander” gum bacteria from immune system clearance, promoting dysbiosis and leading to the bone loss and inflammation that characterizes periodontitis. At the same time, breakdown products produced by inflammation provide essential nutrients that “feed” the dysbiotic microbial community. The result is a vicious cycle in which inflammation and dysbiosis reinforce one another, exacerbating periodontitis.

George Hajishengallis, a professor in the Penn School of Dental Medicine’s Department of Microbiology, was the senior author on the paper, collaborating with co-senior author John Lambris, the Dr. Ralph and Sallie Weaver Professor of Research Medicine in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in Penn’s Perelman School of Medicine. Collaborators included Tomoki Maekawa and Toshiharu Abe of Penn Dental Medicine.

Work by Hajishengallis’s group and collaborators had previously identified P. gingivalis as a “keystone pathogen.” Drawing an analogy from the field of ecology, in which a species such as a grizzly bear is thought of as a keystone species because of the influence it has over a number of other species in the community, the idea suggests that, although P. gingivalis may be relatively few in number in the mouth, their presence exerts an outsized pull on the overall microbial ecosystem. Indeed, the team has shown that, although P. gingivalis is responsible for instigating the process that leads to periodontitis, it can’t cause the disease by itself.

 

“Scientists are beginning to suspect that keystone pathogens might be playing a role in irritable bowel disease, colon cancer and other inflammatory diseases,” Hajishengallis said. “They’re bugs that can’t mediate the disease on their own; they need other, normally non-pathogenic bacteria to cause the inflammation.”

In this study, they wanted to more fully understand the molecules involved in the process by which P. gingivalis caused disease.

“We asked the question, how could bacteria evade killing without shutting off inflammation, which they need to obtain their food,” Hajishengallis said.

The researchers focused on neutrophils, which shoulder the bulk of responsibility of responding to periodontal insults. Based on the findings of previous studies, they examined the role of two protein receptors: C5aR and Toll-like receptor-2, or TLR2.

Inoculating mice with P. gingivalis, they found that animals that lacked either of these receptors as well as animals that were treated with drugs that blocked these receptors had lower levels of bacteria than untreated, normal mice. Blocking either of these receptors on human neutrophils in culture also significantly enhanced the cells’ ability to kill the bacteria. Microscopy revealed that P. gingivalis causes TLR2 and C5aR to physically come together.

“These findings suggest that there is some crosstalk between TLR2 and C5aR,” Hajishengallis said. “Without either one, the bacteria weren’t as effective at colonizing the gums.”

Further experiments in mice and in cultured human neutrophils helped the researchers identify additional elements of how P. gingivalis operates to subvert the immune system. They found that the TLR2-C5aR crosstalk leads to degradation of the protein MyD88, which normally helps clear infection. And in a separate pathway from MyD88, they discovered that P. gingivalis activates the enzyme PI3K through C5aR-TLR2 crosstalk, promoting inflammation and inhibiting neutrophils’ ability to phagocytose, or “eat,” invading bacteria.

Inhibiting the activity of either PI3K or a molecule that acted upstream of PI3K called Mal restored the neutrophils’ ability to clear P. gingivalis from the gums.

P. gingivalis uses this connection between C5aR and TLR2 to disarm and dissociate the MyD88 pathway, which normally protects the host from infection, from the proinflammatory and immune-evasive pathway mediated by Mal and PI3K,” Hajishengallis said.

Not only does the team’s discovery open up new targets for periodontitis treatment, it also suggests a bacterial strategy that could be at play in other diseases involving dysbiosis.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Pennsylvania. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Tomoki Maekawa, Jennifer L. Krauss, Toshiharu Abe, Ravi Jotwani, Martha Triantafilou, Kathy Triantafilou, Ahmed Hashim, Shifra Hoch, Michael A. Curtis, Gabriel Nussbaum, John D. Lambris, George Hajishengallis. Porphyromonas gingivalis Manipulates Complement and TLR Signaling to Uncouple Bacterial Clearance from Inflammation and Promote Dysbiosis. Cell Host & Microbe, 2014; 15 (6): 768 DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.05.012

SOURCE:

MLA

APA

Chicago

University of Pennsylvania. “Gum disease bacteria selectively disarm immune system, study finds.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140611132044.htm>.

 

The following page is only for use by dental professionals.
Please click OK if you are a dental professionals.